Types of Semiconductors and their Applications

A semiconductor refers to a component whose electrical conductivity lies between a good conductor and an insulator. The conductive properties can change depending on factors such as the temperatures. This flexibility gives them a range of uses, including semiconductor tests. This is where a system of equipment provides signals to a semiconductor device to determine if the device works. This is through the comparison of output signals and the expected values. To understand the properties of semiconductors, below are the different types

Intrinsic Semiconductor

This is the pure type of semiconductor, as it only contains one element. Most intrinsic semiconductors are Germanium or Silicon. When temperatures increase, the movement of the particles increases. Thus, the electrons are free to move, which creates a hole in their original position. The moving electrons and holes lead to the conduction of electricity. Intrinsic conductors only depend on temperature to increase conductivity.

Extrinsic Semiconductor

This type of semiconductor contains impurities, which improve its conductivity. In a process called doping, suitable atoms get added to the pure semiconductor. This will improve the conductive characteristics of the semiconductor. It depends on both amounts of impurities and temperature for conductivity. Extrinsic semiconductors may be P-Type semiconductors or N-Type Semiconductors.

P-type Semiconductor

Positive type semiconductors carry the positive charge. During doping, trivalent impurities become part of the semiconductor. This leads to the absence of electrons, which increases the number of holes. Holes are positive charge carriers. They are the primary carriers, while particles are minority carriers.

N-type Semiconductor

Negative semiconductors carry a negative charge. The doping process here involves the addition of pentavalent impurities, which eventually increases the number of electrons. Thus, the atoms are the primary carriers, while the holes are minor carriers, making it a negative charge carrier.

P-N Junction Diode

The negative and positive semiconductors, when joined, form the p-n junction diode. This creates a barrier voltage area without any external voltage in the junction. Thus, the intersection is in an equilibrium state. When one makes different electric connections at the end of the junctions, there are various effects. For example, in forwarding bias, electrical current flows through the diode, whereas in a reverse bias condition, no electric current is allowed. The diodes have several uses, such as acting as a rectifier in electronic circuits due to such attributes. Rectification is a process of converting AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current).

Semiconductors are in numerous electronic devices. They are reliable, compact, and cheap and offer control over the conduction of electricity. These properties make them valuable in transistors, photosensors, integrated chips, semiconductor tests, etc. In case you are building a system, head over to tts to find the most suitable semiconductors for you.

David Curry

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